For this review, complete records of children, households and communities benefitting from different types of support to address and prevent child labour were available only from the ICI implemented CLMRS in Côte d’Ivoire. This section presents and discusses some figures on remediation given to children identified in child labour under the CLMRS, as a background for the analysis of remediation effectiveness (section xx of the report). In addition to the remediation services discussed here, the CLMRS also delivers services to help prevent child labour, including to children and households not actively monitored by the system. Assessing the effectiveness of these prevention services goes beyond the scope of this report because it would need to draw on additional data and different methods.
Table xx shows how many of the children monitored under the ICI implemented CLMRS in Côte d’Ivoire have received how many different types of remediation. We can see that more than 98% of the child labourers identified by the CLMRS have received a remediation. Moreover, the large majority of child labourers (more than 87%) have received more than one type of remediation; a very common combination being for example targeted awareness raising plus some material support such as a school kit; and in many cases, some support provided at the household or the community level on top of that. Almost 30% of the child labourers have benefitted from 4 or more types of remediation.
Awareness raising on what child labour is, which tasks in cocoa production are considered hazardous and are forbidden for children by national legislation; and the harm these tasks can do to children, is a key element of the CLMRS, and a form of remediation which reaches every household covered. However, awareness raising can take different forms: (a) as an inherent part of every visit, monitoring agents explain to the family that the motive of their visit is the fight against child labour and the need to protect children from harm; (b) collective awareness raising sessions held by agents in the communities; and (c) targeted awareness raising sessions held by agents in households where one or several cases of child labour have been identified. We focus our analysis of effectiveness on this last type of awareness raising because it is targeted at the child labour cases identified.
Table xx: Number and percentage of children who benefitted from zero, one or several different types of remediation
|# of types of|
|# of children||share within|
|4 and more||5214||29.3%|
For a comparative assessment of the different types of remediation, we first distinguish between the following broad categories of remediation:
- child-level remediation: services and material support provided directly to the child, which include: school kits and uniforms, birth certificates, tutoring, vocational training, support for school enrolment, bridging classes or in multigrade community schools participation in a reading club
- household-level remediation: services provided to the parents or the household, which include adult literacy classes, income generating activity support, equipment to ease transport of loads (notably wheelbarrows and water rollers), non-sharp tools to replace machetes (“pelle bongo”), improved cookstoves, participation in VSLAs.
- Community-level remediation: services provided at the level of the school or the community, i.e. services from which all households or children living in the community can potentially benefit, which include community service groups (providing low-cost adult labour), construction of or improvements to existing schools (including classrooms, toilets, canteens, and teacher accommodation).
Under ICI’s CLMRS model, the choice of remediation type to be delivered to a child, household or community is made based on the profile and specific needs of the child, the household or the community situation. For example, school kits are given primarily to children of primary school age, while vocational training is targeted at children above primary school age. Birth certificates are obviously relevant only for those children who do not have one. Services addressed at parents, such as income generating activity support or literacy classes, are allocated conditional on parents’ interest in participation. Interventions to improve access to quality education, such as setting up informal community schools or installing school canteens, are planned based on the existing school infrastructure in the community.
Figure xx below shows the number of children having benefitted from different types of remediation under ICI implemented CLMRS in Côte d’Ivoire for who we have follow-up data. These figures do not represent total number of beneficiaries the projects have reached, because some beneficiaries may not yet had a follow-up visit; because support is also given to children at risk of, but not in hazardous child labour, and these beneficiaries would not be followed up by interviews; and because some project support also reaches children living in households who are not members of the cooperatives covered by the CLMRS. Also, the figure does not include those types of remediation for whom we have data from less than 100 beneficiaries.
These figures nevertheless roughly indicate the relative frequency of different types of remediation provided under the ICI CLMRS in Côte d’Ivoire. We can see that school kits are the most common type of support given to children, followed by tutoring and birth certificates. At the household level, targeted awareness raising reaches the largest number of households, followed by income generating activity support. At community level, mobilization of community service groups has been the most frequent intervention.